PANAEOLUS SUBBALTEUS

Weed Panaeolus, Subbs, Banded mottlegill, syn. Panaeolus cinctulus, syn. Panaeolus venenosus

Panaeolus subbalteus also known as Panaeolus cinctulus or Pan. venenosus, is believed to be the most common psilocybin-containing mushroom to grow in California and the most common of the Panaeolus genus to grow in Europe.
Its fimicole nature has most probably helped it spread worldwide through manure it had colonized, making the specie also present in the Americas and in Asia where the Japonese refer to it as the laughing mushroom.
In the early 1900s it inherited of the name weed Panaeolus because it was always finding its way inside the bed cultures of grocery-store mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Its known hallucinogenic properties forced mushroom farmers to carefully weed them out from the edible mushrooms. It was actually through yet another accidental intoxication that his psychoactivity was discovered.
It thrives in well-manured grassy soils and has a symbiotic relationship with horse dung. Folk rumors report the Germanic people, in honor of the horse, sacred animal of Wotan the Germanic god of extasy, would add it to their beer or meals. This classic Druid mushroom was commonly called by the Germans “dunkelrandiger düngerling” translating to the “dark-banded dung mushroom”.
Today, it is believed to gain popularity through the resurgence of pagan festivals in middle and northern Europe.

Visual Description

• Cap: 4-5 cm broad. Convex to bell-shaped, to broadly convex to expanding to nearly with a broad umbo. Coloration is cinnamon brown to orange cinnamon brown, fading to tan when drying. Umbo is often darker. Margin is encircled by a distinct dark brown zone. • Gills: attachment is adnate to uncinate, gills are close and thicker at the center. They have a series of gills inserted in between. Color is brownish and spotted, turn black in maturity, with edges remaining whitish. Turning blackish in age. • Stem:50-60 mm long by 2-4 mm thick. Hollow and fibrous, even and brittle. Color is reddish under fine fibrils, darker near base. Often bruising bluish at base. • Spore print: black • Microscopic features: 11.5-14 by 7.5-9.5 µ.

Potency Description

Various studies find different psilocybin levels, see below: 0.14% psilocybin, no psilocin, 0.033% baecystin (Stijve and Kuyper, 1985) 0.14-0.36% psilocybin, no detectable psilocin (Stijve and Meijer, 1993, Brazilian specimen) 0.14- 0.36% psilocybin (Gurevich, 1993, central Russia and middle Siberia)

Habitat Origin

Widely distributed. Reported from North America, South America, Europe, middle Siberia, Africa, Central Russia, Japan, and the Hawaiian archipelago. Recorded growing in Indonesia, Australia and Samoa. Grows sparsely or gregariously, in dung or in rich grounds, in the spring, through the summer to early fall. Prefers horse dung.

Strain Effects

Christian Ratsch, a German anthropologist and writer, found that this specie induced a dreamy, aphrodisiacal experience. - Stamet recommends not to eat this specie raw. He cites anecdotal reports from the Pacific Northern that associate the consumption of these mushrooms raw with stomach cramps, loss of muscular strength, and/or a feeling of malaise.

Dose Amount

suggested: It is said that psychoactive effects arrive with 1.5 g dry weight (Stein 1959); a visionary dosage is 2.7 g.

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